Specific emissions of energy

Specific emissions, i.e. emission factors, describe the emission levels released per each produced energy unit.

Specific carbon-dioxide emissions of energy sold by Helen:

  • Electricity: 74 g/kWh and the amount of nuclear fuel used 1.2 mg/kWh in 2021
  • Heat: 182 g/kWh in 2021
  • Cooling: 0 g/kWh in 2021

The emissions data for district heat is updated annually in March and that for electricity and cooling in July.

See product-specific data on the district heat and renewable district heat product pages.

See product-specific data on the electricity product pages. The certificates of origin of renewable energy and other separate products have an impact on the specific emissions of each product.


Specific carbon dioxide emissions

Year Heat (g/kWh) Electricity (g/kWh) Cooling (g/kWh)
2021 182 74 0
2020 182 99 0
2019** 198 139 18
2018 158 191 72
2017 172 191 61
2016 163 198 68
2015 92 191 62
2014 96 216 68
2013 108 217 59
2012* 107 209 62
2011 98 83  -
2010 113 128  -
2009 96 126  -
2008* 53 103  -
2007 111 260  -
2006 138 260  -
2005 82 222  -

Calculation principles

Specific emissions have been calculated for the amount of energy sold to the customer, taking into account the production and distribution losses.

In terms of electricity acquired from the electricity market, specific emissions are based on the calculation by the Finnish Energy Authority, taking into account separately sold renewable energy with guarantees of origin in order to avoid double calculation.

*The principles of calculating the specific emissions of electricity have changed over the years as a result of changes in the procurement structure and legislation. The specific emissions of electricity sold in 2005–2007 were calculated according to Helen's production structure and in 2008–2011 according to the production structure in Finland. The specific emissions of electricity sold since 2012 have been calculated on the basis of the residual mix on the electricity exchange and separate procurement by the company itself.

**The calculation of specific emissions of heating and cooling was based on the primary energy method (SFS-EN-15316-4-5) in 2005–2018, and on benefit allocation method starting from 2019. More information in our blog (Finnish).

See also

Energy for the future

Many different solutions are needed to tackle the global climate challenge – and everyone must contribute to this effort.

Energy production

We produce energy effectively with combined and heat and power generation and balance the production with heat and cooling accumulators. We produce solar power in our own plants, and we buy the rest of the renewable energy from other parts of the country.

Helsinki Clean Tech Hub

Change is the only constant. It drives us in the energy transition from fossils to renewables. We at Helen are turning the traditional and centralized energy system into a platform enabling sustainable living and moving. We will become carbon neutral by 2030 and we are making it happen with our customers and partners.

Power plants

Our power plants are located in various parts of Helsinki. Find out more about our power plants!

Origin of energy

See what we use for producing electricity, district heat and district cooling.

Energy sources

Our energy sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear power, hydro power, waste heat, sea water, wood pellets, biogas, fuel oil, as well as wind power and solar energy.